About Alcoholism - Alcoholism Information, Research and Treatment
Many of these items are contrary to AA philosophy. Their publication here does not mean that the Grapevine endorses or approves them; they are offered solely for your information.
A psychological evaluation of 1,500 first offenders referred by the DA's office in Philadelphia, Pa., indicated that 48% were found to be psychologically dependent on alcohol, and a further 6% both psychologically and physically dependent. The study was reported by Eric W. Fine, Pascal Scoles, and Michael Mulligan.-- Physician's Alcohol Newsletter